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This Year In Jerusalem - Voices of the Conflict
Its PeopleLand & DeedsOutside the Walls
A Jerusalem Timeline
3,000 Years of The City's History

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Click here for the names behind the voices heard on this timeline.

1004 BCE - Jerusalem is established as the capital of a united Israel ruled by King David.

960 - King Solomon builds the First Temple. All that remains of the temple is a retaining wall - the Western or Wailing Wall - revered by many Jews the world over.

586 - The city is razed by the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar; the Jews are exiled to Babylon.

538-37 - Jews return to the city.

515 - The Second Temple is constructed.

332 - The city falls to the forces of Alexander the Great.

164 - Judah Maccabee defeats the Seleucids and recaptures Jerusalem.

63 - The Romans occupy the city.

37 - Rome appoints Herod Agrippa as ruler of Judea with Jerusalem as its capitol.

132 - 135 CE - Simon Bar Kochba leads a failed rebellion against the Roman occupation. Jerusalem is destroyed; the Jews are exiled from the city; hundreds of thousands of Jews are eventually deported from Palestine. The Romans rebuild the city and name it "Aelia Capitolina." Mrs. Bavta, carrying property deeds and titles, flees to the Judean hills. Listen

313 - Roman Emperor Constantine recognizes Christianity.

326 - Constantine builds Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

638 - After a long siege, Caliph Omar captures the city from the Byzantines.

691 - The Dome of The Rock is built by Caliph Abd al-Malik on the Temple Mount. Islamic tradition holds that the Dome covers a rock from which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven.

715 - Al-Aqsa Mosque is completed.

1095 - First Crusade is unleashed by Pope Urban II.

1099 - Crusaders storm Jerusalem and massacre the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants.

1187 - Salah al-Din captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders.

1229 - Crusaders regain Jerusalem.

1244 - Malmuks drive Crusaders from the city and restore Muslim control.

1517 - The city becomes part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.

1537 - 1541 - The city's walls are restored during the reign of The Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman the Magnificant. These walls still stand today.

1831 - Egypt, ruled by Mohammed Ali, captures Jerusalem. The European powers jockey for control of the Levant. Egypt rule lasts for nine years until the region reverts once again to the Ottomans. Listen

1860 - The first Jewish settlement established outside the Old City

1917 - The Ottomans cede control of Palestine, including Jerusalem, to the British.

1917 - The Balfour Declaration is issued as an expression of British support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

1922 - The League of Nations appoints a Palestine Mandate to the British. Haj Amin el-Husseini becomes the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.

1929 - Wailing Wall Incident - Clashes between Arabs and Jews in Jerusalem are triggered by acts near the Western Wall that both sides consider provocative. Fighting escalates into a small-scale civil war and culminates in the massacre of the Jewish inhabitants of Hebron.

1936 -1939 - A massive Arab revolt is triggered by increasing Jewish immigration and British Colonial rule.

1946 - The Jewish paramilitary group Irgun blows up part of the King David Hotel in West Jerusalem killing 92 British soldiers and Arab and Jewish civilians.

1947 - The United Nations approves Resolution 181 - a partition plan dividing Palestine into two states: one Arab, one Jewish. Jerusalem is to be administered by an international trusteeship.

1948 - End of the British Mandate and the declaration by the Jewish Agency of the State of Israel. War breaks out between the Arabs and Jews. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced as a result of the conflict.

The British District Commissioner for Jerusalem advises Avraham Biran, District Officer for Jewish Jerusalem, to take town planning files and move to a more heavily Jewish populated area. Listen

1949 - Israel and Arab states sign an armistice. King Abdallah of Jordan annexes the West Bank including East Jerusalem and the Old City. Israel retains control of West Jerusalem.

1951 - Abdallah is assassinated at the Temple Mount by Palestinian nationalists.

1956 - The Suez War.

1963- City planner Israel Kimche anticipates a united Jerusalem. Listen

1967 - Israel defeats the military forces of Egypt, Jordan and Syria and obtains control of all of Jerusalem including the Temple Mount. Listen.

As a child, Jamal Awad witnesses the Jordanian army leaving and the Israeli occupation of the city. Listen

1968 - Palestinian National Charter.

1973 - Yom Kippur or October War.

1979 - Peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.

1980 - Israel passes law declaring Jerusalem the Capitol of Israel.

1987 - Palestinians begin the Intifada (resistance) in the Occupied Territories.

1993 -Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization negotiate a Declaration of Principles.

1995 - Israel-Jordan peace treaty.

2000 - Peace talks at Camp David in the United States founder after Palestinian and Israeli negotiators fail to come to an agreement about their respective claims to sites of holy significance in Jerusalem.

2000 - Ariel Sharon walks across the Temple Mount. The act inflames Palestinian public opinion and triggers a new Intifada: the Al-Aqsa Intifada.

Voices heard on this timeline:

Gershom Gorenberg, senior editor for The Jerusalem Report and author of The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount

Karen Armstrong, historian, theologian and author of Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths

Avraham Biran, Archaeologist

Jamal Awad, Jerusalem resident

Albert Aghazarian, Professor, Bir Zeit University, Ramallah

Israel Kimche, The Jerusalem Institute

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